During the Middle Ages, the Albanians were mostly Christians, and their areas were mostly under the rule of Byzantium. Under Byzantine influence, the Albanians have accepted the coat of arms with two-headed eagle, which later became the official coat of arms of Albania.  In the 14th century, Albanians have lived under the Serbian Empire, where they were recognized as a nation. Stefan Dušan carried the title "Emperor of the Serbs, Greeks, Bulgarians and Arbanasa".  At the time of the Ottoman conquest, many Albanian lords, together with Serbian and Bosnian army, fought against the Turkish army in the Battle of Kosovo.  In this age in Kosovo lived negligible number of Albanians.
In the 15th century, when a large part of the Balkan Peninsula fell into the hands of the Turks, Albanians led by Scanderbeg (1405-1468), "Dragon of Albania", led by a merciless struggle against the Ottoman Empire two decades.  After the death of Scanderbeg, Albanian resistance continued for another ten years, until the Ottoman army in 1478, the fourth attempt, finally took Kruja, his hometown. Subsequently, Albania is next several centuries was part of the Ottoman Empire.